Directions: Suppose you are asked to give advice on whether to attend college at home or abroad, write an essay to state your opinion. You are required to write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.
Nowadays, there has been a heated discussion as to a better choice between attending college at home and abroad. Views on the topic vary greatly among people from different walks of life. Some believe that it is a better choice to study in domestic colleges, but others consider it better to study abroad. I totally agree with the latter idea for the reasons presented below. To begin with, it harms the society in that the greater the competition is, the higher the recruitment requirements will become. Therefore, with experiences of studying abroad, graduates will become more competitive in job hunting. Furthermore, it is beneficial to the students themselves to study abroad. Without the choice to pursue overseas study, many great scholars today would never have achieved such great success. From my perspective, it is crucial that the government should encourage people to pursue overseas study. Also it is crucial that people should understand the meaning and value of attending college abroad. Only in this way can we achieve greater success.
1. A) He would feel insulted.
2. B) They are of little value.
3. A) He seldom writes a book straight through.
4. D) Unlike a football match, there is no end to writing a book.
5. C) High college dropout rates among black athletes.
6. D) They make money for the college but often fail to earn a degree.
7. C) Slightly over 50%.
8. A) Coaches lack the incentive to graduate them.
9. B) Holiday shopping.
10. D) About 183.8 million.
11. C) They are thriving once more.
12. B) Higher employment and wages.
13. D) They are antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
14. D) Routine operations have become complex.
15. C) Money.
16. B) It improves students' ability to think.
17. A) They encourage academic democracy.
18. A) His thirst for knowledge.
19. D) People tend to underestimate their mental powers.
20. B) They include more or less the same number of states.
21. C) Reviewing your lessons where the exam is to take place.
22. A) Discover when you can learn best.
23. C) He is a sociologist.
24. D) In developing countries.
25. B) Their income is less than 50% of the national average family income.
Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single through the center. You may not use any of the word in the bank more than once.
Let’s all stop judging people who talk to themselves. New research says that those who can’t seem to keep their inner monologues (独白) in are actually more likely to stay on task, remain ___26___ better and show improved perception capabilities. Not bad, really, for some extra muttering.
According to a series of experiments published in the Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology by professors Gary Lupyan and Daniel Swignley, the act of using verbal clues to ___27___ mental pictures helps people function quicker.
In one experiment, they showed pictures of various objects to twenty ___28___ and asked them to find just one of those, a banana. Half were ___29___ to repeat out loud what they were looking for and the other half kept their lips ___30___ . Those who talked to themselves found the banana slightly faster than those who didn’t, the researchers say. In other experiments, Lupyan and Swignley found that ___31___ the name of a common product when on the hunt for it helped quicken someone’s pace, but talking about uncommon items showed no advantage and slowed you down.
Common research has long held that talking themselves through a task helps children learn, although doing so when you’ve ___32___ matured is not a great sign of ___33___The two professors hope to refute that idea, ___34___ that just as when kids walk themselves through a process, adults can benefit from using language not just to communicate, but also to help “augment thinking”.
Of course, you are still encouraged to keep the talking at library tones and, whatever you do, keep the information you share simple, like a grocery list. At any ___35___ , there’s still such a thing as too much information.
26. F) focused
27. L) trigger
28. O) volunteers
29. H) instructed
30. J) sealed
31. M) uttering
32. A) apparently
33. C) brilliance
34. D) claiming
35. N) volume
[A] The lives of children from rich and poor American families look more different than they have in decades.
[B] Well-off families are ruled by calendars. with children enrolled in ballet. soccer and after-school programs, according to a new Pew Research Center survey There are usually two parents, who spend a lot of time reading to children and worrying about their anxiety levels and hectic schedules
[C] In poor families. however. children tend to spend their time at home or with extended family. the survey found They are more likely to grow up in neighborhoods that their parents say aren't great for raising children. and their parents worry about them getting shot, beaten up or in trouble with the law
[D] The class differences m child rearing are growing, researchers say - a symptom of widening inequality with far-reaching consequences Different upbringings set children on different paths and can deepen socioeconomic divisions. Especially because education is strongly linked to earnings Children grow up learning the skills to succeed in their socioeconomic stratum. but not necessarily others
[E] "Early childhood experiences can be very consequential for children's long-term social, emotional and cognitive development." said Sean F.Reardon. professor of poverty and inequality in education at Stanford University -And because those influence educational success and later earnings. early childhood experiences cast a lifelong shadow" The cycle continues: Poorer parents have less time and fewer resources to invest in their children. which can leave children less prepared for school and work. which leads to lower earnings
[F] American parents want similar things for their children, the Pew report and past research have found: for them to be healthy and happy, honest and ethical, caring and compassionate There is no best parenting style or philosophy, researchers say, and across income groups, 92 percent of parents say they are doing a good
job at raising their children. Yet they are doing it quite differently Middle-class and higher-income parents see their children as projects in need of careful cultivation, says Annette Lareau, a University of Pennsylvania sociologist whose goundbreaking research on the topic was published in her book "Unequal Childhoods: Class, Race and Family Life " They try to develop their skills through close supervision and organized activities, and teach children to question authority figures and navigate elite institutions.
[G] Working-class parents, meanwhile, believe their children will naturally thrive, and give them far greater independence and time for free play They are taught to be compliant and deferential to adults There are benefits to both approaches Working-class children are happier, more independent, whine less and are closer with family members, Ms Lareau found Higher-income children are more likely to declare boredom and expect their parents to solve their problems Yet later on, the more affluent children end up in college and en route to the middle class, while working-class children tend to struggle Children from higher-income families are likely to have the skills to navigate bureaucracies and succeed in schools and workplaces, Ms.Lareau said
[H] "Do all parents want the most success for their children? Absolutely," she said "Do some strategies give children more advantages than others in institutions? Probably they do Will parents be damaging children if they have one fewer organized activity? No, I really doubt it "
[I] Social scientists say the differences arise in part because low-income parents have less money to spend on music class or preschool, and less flexible schedules to take children to museums or attend school events Extracurricular activities epitomize the differences in child rearing in the Pew survey, which was of a nationally representative sample of l,807 parents Of families earning more than $75,000 a year, 84 percent say their children have participated in organized sports over the past year, 64 percent have done volunteer work and 62 percent have taken lessons in music, dance or art Of families earning less than $30,000,59 percent of children have done sports, 37 percent have volunteered and 41 percent have taken arts classes
[J] Especially in affluent families, children start young Nearly half of high-earning, college-graduate
parents enrolled their children in arts classes before they were 5, compared with one-fifth oflow-income,
less-educated parents. Nonetheless, 20 percent of well-off parents say their children's schedules are too
hectic, compared with 8 percent of poorer parents.
[K] Another example is reading aloud, which studies have shown gives children bigger vocabularies and better reading comprehension in school Seventy-one percent of parents with a college degree say they do it every day, compared with 33 percent of those with a high school diploma or less, Pew found White parents are more likely than others to read to their children daily, as are married parents Most affluent parents enroll their children in preschool or day care, while low-income parents are more likely to depend on family members Discipline techniques vary by education level: 8 percent of those with a postgraduate degree say they often spank their children, compared with 22 percent of those with a high school degree or less
[L] The survey also probed attitudes and anxieties. Interestingly, parents' attitudes toward education do not seem to reflect their own educational background as much as a belief in the importance of education for upward mobility Most American parents say they are not concerned about their children's grades as long as they work hard But 50 percent of poor parents say it is extremely important to them that their children earn a college degree, compared with 39 percent of wealthier parents
[M] Less-educated parents, and poorer and black and Latino parents are more likely to believe that there is no such thing as too much involvement in a child's education Parents who are white, wealthy or college-educated say too much involvement can be bad Parental anxieties reflect their circumstances High-earning parents are much more likely to say they live in a good neighborhood for raising children While bullying is parents: greatest concern over all, nearly half of low-income parents worry their child will get shot, compared with one-fifth of high-income parents They are more worried about their children being depressed or anxious
[N] In the Pew survey, middle-class families earning between $30,000 and $75,000 a year fell right between working-class and high-earning parents on issues like the quality of their neighborhood for raising children,participation in extracurricular activities and involvement in their children's education
[O] Children were not always raised so differently The achievement gap between children from high- and low-income families is 30 percent t0 40 percent larger among children born in 2001 than those born 25 years earlier, according to Mr Reardon's research People used to live near people of different income levels;neighborhoods are now more segregated by income More than a quarter of children live in single-parent households - a historic high, according to Pew - and these children are three times as likely to live in poverty as those who live with married parents Meanwhile, growing income inequality has coincided with the increasing importance of a college degree for earning a middle-class wage
[P] Yet there are recent signs that the gap could be starting to shrink In the past decade, even as income inequality has grown, some of the socioeconomic differences in parenting, like reading to children and going to libraries, have narrowed
36. Working-class parents teach their children to be obedient and show respect to adults.
37. American parents, whether rich or poor, have similar expectations of their children despite different ways of parenting.
38. while rich parents are more concerned with their children’s psychological well-being, poor parents are more worried about their children’s safety.
39. The increasing differences in child rearing between rich and poor families reflect growing social inequality.
40. Parenting approaches of working-class and affluent families both have advantages.
41. Higher-income families and working-class families tend to live in different neighborhoods.
42. Physical punishment is used much less by well-educated parents.
43. Ms. Lareau doesn’t believe participating in fewer after-class activities will negatively affect children’s development.
44. Wealthy parents are concerned about their children’s mental health and busy schedules.
45. Some socioeconomic differences in child rearing have shrunk in the past ten years.
Questions 46 t0 50 are based on the following passage.
Open data-sharers are still in the minority in many fields,Although many rescarechers broadly agree that public access to raw data would accelerate science- because other scientists might be able to make advances not foreseen by the data's producers -most are reluctant to post the results of their own labours online (see Nature 461, 160-163; 2009) When Wolkovich, for instance, went hunting for the data from the 50 studies in her meta-analysis, only 8 data sets were available online, and many of the researchers whom she e-mailed refused to share their work Forced to extract data from tables or flgures in publications,Wolkovich's team could conduct only limited analyses
Some communities have agreed to share online - geneticists, for example, post DNA sequences at the GenBank repository, and astronomers are accustomed to accessing images of galaxies and stars from, say,the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, a telescope that has observed some 500 million objects - but these remain the exception, not the rule Historically, scientists have objected to sharing for many reasons: it is a lot of work; until recently, good databases did not exist; grant funders were not pushing for sharing; it has been difficult to agree on standards for formatting data and the contextual information called metadata; and there
is no agreed way to assign credit for data
But the barriers are disappearing in part because journals and funding agencies worldwide are encouraging scientists to make their data public. Last year, the Royal Society in London said in its report Science as an Open Enterprise that scientists need to shift away from a research culture where data is viewed as pricate preserve " Funding agencies note that data paid for with public money should be public information, and the scientific community is recognizing that data can now be shared digitally in ways that were not possible before To match the growing demand, services are springing up to make it easier to publish research products online and enable other researchers to discover and cite them
Although exhortations to share data often concentrate on the moral advantages of sharing, the practice is not purely altruistic Researchers who share get plenty of personal benefits.including more connections with colleagues,improved visibility and increased citations The most successful sharers - those whose data are downloaded and cited the most often - get noticed, and their work gets used For example, one of the most popular data sets on multidisciplinary repository Dryad is about wood density around the world; it has been downloaded 5,700 times. Co-author Amy Zanne, a biologist at George Washington University in Washington DC, thinks that users probably range from climate-change researchers wanting to estimate how much carbon is stored in biomass, to foresters looking for information on different grades of' timber "I would much prefer to have my data used by the maximum number of people to ask their own questions," she says "It's important to allow readers and reviewers to see exactly how you arrive at your results Publishing data and code allows your science to be reproducible "
46 What do many researchers generally accept?
A It is imperative to protest scientist' patents
B Repositories are essential to scientitle research
C Open data sharing is most important to medical science
D.Open data sharing is conducive to scientific advancement
47 What is the attitude of most researchers towards making their own data public?
48 According to the passage, what might hinder open data sharing"
A The fear of massive copying
B The lack of a research culture
C.The belief that resacrch is private intellectual property
D. The concern that certain agencies may make a profit out of it
49 What helps lift some of the barriers to open data sharing?
A The ever-growing demand for big data
B The advantage of digital technology
C The changing attitude of journals and funders.
D The trend of social and economic development.
50 Dryad serves as an example to show how open data sharing ___
A is becoming increasingly popular
B benefits shares and users alike
C makes researchers successful
D saves both money and labor
Question 51 t0 55 are based on the following passage.
Beginning in the late sixteenth century, it became fashionable for young aristocrats to visit Europe and above all Rome, as the culmination(终极) of their classical education Thus the idea of the Grand Tour was born, a practice which introduced Englishmen, Germans, Scandinavians, and also Americans to the art and
culture of France and Italy for the next 300 years.Travel was arduous and costly throughout the period.possible only for a privileged class the same that produced gentlemen scientists authors antique experts and patrons of the arts.
The Grand Tourist was typically a young man with a thorough background in Greek and Latin literature as well as some leisure time some means and some interest in art.The German traveler Johann Winckelmann pioneered the field of art history with his comprehensive study of Greek and Roman sculpture.he was portrayed by his friend Anton Raphael Mengs at the beginning of his long residence in Rome.Most Grand Tourist however stayed for briefer periods and set out with souvenirs of their travels as well as an understanding of art and architecture formed by exposure to great masterpieces.
Since there were few museums anywhere in Eurpe before the end of the 18th century Grand Tourists often saw paintings and sculptures by gaining admission to private collections. and many were eager to acquire examples of Greco-Roman and Italian art for their own collections In England, where
architecture was increasingly seen as an aristocratic pursuit, noblemen often applied what they learned from the villas of Palladio in Veneto and the evocative ruins of Rome to their own country houses and gardens
51 What is said about the Grand Tour?
A)It was fashionable among young people of the time
B)It was unaffordable for ordinary people
C)It produced some famous European artists
D)It made a compulsory part of college education
52 What did Grand Tourists have in common?
A)They had much geographic knowledge
B)They were courageous and venturesome
C)They were couragcous and venturesome
D)They had enough travel and outdoor-life experience
53 How did Grand Tourists benefit from their travel?
A)They found inspiration in the world's greatest masterpieces
B)They got a better understanding of early human civilization
C)They developed an interest in the origin of modern art forms
D)They gained some knowledge of classical art and architecture
54 Why did many Grand Tourists visit the private collections?
A)They could buy unique souvenirs there to take back home
B)Europe hardly had any museums before 19th century
C)They found the antiques there more valuable
D)Private collections were of greater variety
55 How dis the Grand Tour influence the architecture in England?
A)There appeared more and more Roman-style buildings
B)Many aristocrats began to move into Roman-style villas
C)Aristocrats' country houses all had Roman-style gardens
D)Italian architects were hired to design houses and gardens
46. D) Open data sharing is conducive to scientific advancement.
47. A) Opposed.
48. C) The belief that research data is private intellectual property.
49. C) The changing attitude of journals and funders.
50. B) benefits sharers and users alike
51. [B] It was unaffordable for ordinary people.
52. [C] They were versed in literature and interested in art.
53. [D] They gained some knowledge of classical art and architecture.
54. [B] Europe hardly had any museums before the 19th century.
55. [A] There appeared more and more Roman-style buildings.